Hypovolemic shock is a life-threatening condition that results when you lose more than 20% of your body’s blood or fluid supply.
This condition can be caused by:
- various kinds of injuries, gastrointestinal bleeding, surgical interventions, fractures, in which large blood loss occurs;
- extensive body burns;
- infectious diseases;
- intestinal obstruction;
- acute intestinal infections.
The main symptomatic manifestations of hypovolemic shock:
- pale skin;
- various kinds of impaired consciousness;
- decreased blood pressure;
The diagnosis is based on the clinical picture. To determine the degree of hypovolemic shock and assess the patient’s condition, a special classification is used. A general analysis of urine and blood is performed. In case of possible fractures, radiography is indicated.
Treatment is carried out by emergency by resuscitators. In order to treat the underlying disease, other specialists are also involved: surgeons, gastroenterologists, infectious disease specialists, traumatologists, etc. First of all, dextrose, polyionic solutions are injected into the vein through a catheter. In the absence of effect, synthetic plasma substitutes are infused. In the absence of positive hemodynamics, sympathomimetics (dopamine, phenylephrine) are used, inhalation with an air-oxygen mixture is performed, artificial lung ventilation is carried out only according to indications.
A lack of blood or fluids in the body can damage organs like the kidneys or the brain. Possible complications are gangrene of the extremities, a heart attack. The consequences depend on how much blood or fluid was lost, how quickly this happens, and on the degree of damage. The chance of survival is also affected by the rapid provision of professional medical assistance.
Chronic diseases, such as diabetes, heart, lung, or kidney disease, can exacerbate complications.
The main prevention is the timely provision of assistance to victims of various injuries, burns, etc., as well as in the timely treatment of diseases that can trigger a rapid decrease in the volume of circulating blood.