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Arterial Blood Gas Resources


Not just book material, but extensive resources to help you branch beyond.  This is just one topic: Arterial Blood Gases.  All included with membership.


  • 2008 ABG Pocket Guide and ABG Instructional Guide
    Pocket-sized book for clinical use and accompanying Instructional Guide by Dana Oakes, BA, RRT-NPS, Health Educator Publications, Inc; This book examines not just basic classification, but interpretation, bringing health care providers to an advanced understanding of ABGs.



  • Blood Gas Analysis and Hemoximetry
    2001 Revision & Update

  • Capillary Blood Gas Sampling for Neonatal & Pediatric Patients

  • Oxygen Therapy for Adults in the Acute Care Facility — 2002 Revision & Update

  • Pulse Oximetry

  • Sampling for Arterial Blood Gas Analysis

  • Transcutaneous Blood Gas Monitoring for Neonatal & Pediatric Patients
    2004 Revision & Update


  • Hypoxic Drive Myth References
    A list of Journal Articles compiled by author Dana Oakes that highlights faults in the Hypoxic Drive Theory, including several description of Hypoxic Drive Theory
  • Use of Venous Blood Gases
    A list of articles and sites compiled by author Dana Oakes that highlight Venous Blood Gases - quite comprehensive.



  • Acid Base Online Calculator
    Interactive calculator from which you input data (such as pH, PaCO2, HCO3) and can receive a basic interpretation with expected values.

Case Studies

  • Anesthesia Education Website Case Studies
    Contains about 30 case studies of Arterial Blood Gases with detailed explanations. This is a great way to test your true knowledge of the whole patient - not just a basic classification.

  • Anesthesia Education Website Case Studies Archives
    Contains 6 detailed case studies of Arterial Blood Gases with detailed explanations.


  • Acid-Base Physiology Online Book
    Comprehensive online book (11 chapters). Not the easiest reading (poor sentence structure, etc.), but more than makes up for that with extensive information.
    See particulary the chapter on systematic blood gas classification:
    • 9.2 Systematic Evaluation of Blood Gas Classification

  • Interpretation of Arterial Blood Gases (ABG's)
    by David Kaufman, MD. One-page article looks at Interpretation of ABGs, including etiologies. Does include calculation of anion-gaps.

  • University of Connecticut Online Acid Base Tutorial
    One of our favorite tutorials that walks through Acid-Base Interpretation. Includes compensatory responses and mechanisms, physiologic responses, Calculations, and a Stepwise Approach. As an extra, try out the case examples (8 of them), as well as the Acid Base Physiology Links. This is a TOP PICK!

  • Merck Manual ABG Interpretation
    Interesting information from the Merck Manual website. Of particular interest is Table 2: Clinical Consequences of Acid-Base Disorders


  • Acid-Base Physiology Online Book
    Comprehensive online book (11 chapters). Not the easiest reading (poor sentence structure, etc.), but more than makes up for that with extensive information.

Pulse Oximetry

    some good information on Pulse Oximetry, including uses, history, and the science.


Hypoxic Drive

  • The Death of the Hypoxic Drive Theory
    Very Large File Warning PowerPoint by Jeff Whitnack (Respiratory Therapist) that debunks the myths of the Hypoxic Drive Theory. Often offbeat, sometimes random even, there are many slides with EBM supporting arguments.

  • Hypoxic Drive Theory: Reality or Simply a Hoax?
    Blog by Richard Stephen Frea that reviews the tenets of Hypoxic Drive Theory, with an emphasis on both anecdotal clinical practice and evidence based medicine.

  • Hypoxic Drive in Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease: is the Fear of Oxygen Therapy Based on Fact or Myth,
    Large File Warning
    Powerpoint presentation by Mark Siobal. An intelligent look at the balance between hypoxic drive in patients who are CO2 retainers and the need to treat hypoxia.


  • Acid/Base and ABG Interpretation Made Simple
    Powerpoint presentation geared towards medical school students. Covers the basics of ABG Interpretation

Venous Blood Gas

  • When is Venous Blood Gas Analysis Enough?
    We know that often times a Venous Blood Gas is less invasive, often piggybacking on labs already being drawn. This article looks at factors to consider in using a venous versus arterial blood gas. Emerg Med 38(12):44-48, 2006



  • Acute Care Testing
    Bridges the gap between Scientific Publications and Daily Practice with information (user-to-user) on the issues surrounding acute care testing.


  • Deep-Picture
    Helps with interpretation and comprehension of the parameters that influence arterial oxygen status - sponsored and maintained by Radiometer with the assistance of experienced Intensive Care Clinicians. Includes definitions, explanations and relevant equations!